How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration interact?
What is respiration?
What are the reactants in cellular respiration? What are the products?
How many membranes does the mitochondria have?
What is the innermost space of the mitochondria called?
What happens during phosphorylation?
What gets put into glycolysis?
Where does glycolysis occur?
What are the products of glycolysis?
What gets put into the Krebs cycle?
Where does the Krebs cycle occur?
What are the products of the Krebs cycle?
What gets put into the electron transport chain?
Where does electron transport occur?
What are the products of electron transport?
What is the energy summary for each step in the metabolic pathway?
What is fermentation and when does it occur?
What is the summary reaction for photosynthesis?
What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
Which wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum is visible light?
What types of pigments are present in plants?
What is a chloroplast?
Where is a chloroplast located? What is its function?
How many membranes does a chloroplast have?
What are the sacs in the chloroplast called?
What is the innermost part of a chloroplast called?
What are the light dependent reactions? What is their function?
What is produced in the PSII portion of the ETC?
What is produced in the PSI portion of the ETC?
Where do the light dependent reactions take place?
What are the carbon reactions? What is their function?
What enzyme is responsible for binding carbon dioxide to RuBP?
What is produced in the carbon reactions?
Where do the carbon reactions take place?
What is photorespiration and when does it take place?
What is different about C3 metabolism versus C4 metabolism?
What is different about C3 metabolism versus CAM metabolism?
What is different about C4 metabolism versus CAM metabolism?
Where are C3 plants generally found?
Where are C4 plants generally found?
Where are CAM plants generally found?
What is sexual reproduction?
What is asexual reproduction?
How do prokaryotes reproduce?
What does diploid mean? Haploid?
What are the steps in the cell cycle?
What is happening during each step in the cell cycle?
What are the steps in interphase?
What is happening during each step?
Be sure you can draw the steps in mitosis.
What are the steps in mitosis?
What is happening during each step of mitosis?
What is separating in anaphase?
What is the difference in cytokinesis between plant cells and animal cells?
What are the checkpoints that determine cell fate?
How do cancer cells differ from normal cells?
What are some causes of cancer?
Be sure you can draw each stage of meiosis.
What are the steps in meiosis?
How many divisions occur in meiosis?
What is crossing over?
What are the sources of variability that occur in meiosis?
How many daughter cells are produced in meiosis?
What types of cells undergo meiosis?
How many chromosomes are in the gametes of humans?
What are gametes?
What are sister chromatids?
What are homologous chromosomes?
What is a karyotype?
What causes Down Syndrome?
What is nondisjunction?
What is polyploidy?
What kinds of alterations occur if an individual gets too many sex chromosomes?
What happens if an individual gets too many autosomes?
What are autosomes?
What is a deletion and what is the effect?
What is a inversion and what is the effect?
What is a duplication and what is the effect?
What is a translocation and what is the effect?
Be sure you can predict the outcome of a cross by working out a punnett square.
Who was Mendel and what did he study?
what is a gene?
What is an allele?
What does dominant mean?
What does recessive mean?
What does homozygous mean?
What does heterozygous mean?
What are Mendel's laws of gene segregation and of independent assortment?
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
What is a pedigree and what is it used for?
What are the expected genotypic and phenotypic ratios for a 1 trait heterozygous cross (monohybrid)?
What are the expected phenotypic ratios for a 2 trait heterozygous cross (dihybrid)?
When is a dominant allele expressed?
When is a recessive allele expressed?
What is incomplete dominance?
What is codominance?
How can the environment influence expression?
What is plieotropy?
Can one gene influence multiple phenotypes?
Can many genes be involved in the production of just one phenotype?
What are linked genes?
How might their inheritance seem to differ from Mendel's expected phenotypes?
Be familiar with the other sex chromosome combinations discussed in class.
What are sex-linked traits?
Why are sex linked traits more common in males than females?
How can we use the Y chromosome to trace male inheritance?
Who determined that DNA is the genetic material rather than proteins?
What type of experiments determined that DNA is the genetic material rather than proteins?
Who was involved in determining the structure of DNA?
What is the shape of a DNA strand?
Which nitrogenous bases bond to each other?
What is a purine? A pyrimidine?
What do I mean when I describe DNA replication as semi-conservative?
What are the steps in DNA replication?
Which enzymes are involved in DNA replication?
Does DNA replication have a direction and if so, what is the direction?
Where does replication take place?
What does antiparallel mean?
What happens if a mutation occurs during repliation?
What is the structure of DNA?
What is the structure of RNA?
What are the differences between RNA and DNA?
How many types of RNA were discussed in class?
What is the function of each type of RNA?
What is transcription?
What is translation?
What are the steps in transcription?
Does transcription have a direction and if so, what is the direction?
What is the product of transcription?
Where does transcription take place?
Is RNA processed after synthesis?
What is a codon?
What are the steps in translation?
Where is a protein synthesized?
Which types of RNA are involved in translation?
What is an amino acid?
How does tRNA code for a particular amino acid?
Why is protein folding so important?
Do prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression in the same way?
What is a virus?
What is a virus composed of?
What are characteristics that are found in some viruses but not all viruses?
Are viruses alive?
How do viruses replicate?
What is the lytic cycle?
What is the lysogenic cycle?
How do vaccines work?
What are viroids?
What are prions?
How do prokaryotes reproduce?
What are the differences between transformation, transduction, and conjugation?
What is an operator?
What is a repressor?
How does the lac operon work (in general)?
How is DNA packaged?
What is a nucleosome?
How many X chromosomes are expressed at any given time in female cells?
What is X-inactivation?
Why does X-inactivation occur?
What is a transcription factor?
How do transcription factors affect eukaryotic transcription?
Besides transcription factors, how do eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression?
What are homeotic genes and are they similar in different types of organisms?
What is a DNA microarray and what is it used for?
What is a signal transduction pathway? What does it do?
What is cloning?
How can cloning be used for therapy?
What is the genetic basis for cancer?
Can you alter your behavior to reduce the risk of cancer?